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dc.contributor.author Gierut, Judith A. en
dc.contributor.author Morrisette, Michele L. en
dc.date.accessioned 2015-06-23T19:36:27Z en
dc.date.available 2015-06-23T19:36:27Z en
dc.date.issued 2012 en
dc.identifier.citation Gierut, J. A., & Morrisette, M. L. (2012). Density, frequency and the expressive phonology of children with phonological delay. Journal of Child Language, 39, 804-834. PMCID: PMC3355193 en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2022/20181
dc.description.abstract The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were taught using stimulus words that varied orthogonally in neighborhood density and word frequency as the independent variables. Generalization was the dependent variable, defined as production accuracy of treated and untreated (erred) sounds. Blocked comparisons showed that dense neighborhoods triggered greater generalization, but frequency did not have a clear differential effect. Orthogonal comparisons revealed graded effects, with frequent words from dense neighborhoods being optimal for generalization. The results contrast with prior literature, which has reported a sparse neighborhood advantage for children with phonological delay. There is a suggestion that children with phonological delay require greater than usual cue redundancy and convergence to prompt expressive phonological learning. en
dc.description.sponsorship National Institutes of Health DC00433, RR7031K, DC00076, DC001694 (PI: Gierut) en
dc.language.iso en_US en
dc.publisher Cambridge University Press en
dc.relation.isversionof https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000911000304 en
dc.rights © 2012 Cambridge University Press en
dc.subject phonology en
dc.subject child phonology en
dc.subject clinical phonology en
dc.subject phonological disorders in children en
dc.subject phonological treatment en
dc.subject Learnability Project en
dc.subject language acquisition en
dc.title Density, frequency and the expressive phonology of children with phonological delay en
dc.type Article en


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